Indian metros are some of the highest polluted cities in the world, but even among the metros, Delhi is the most polluted city in the world due to seven major following reasons:
1. Due to the location factor of being away from the coastal regions, so there is no sea breeze which gets away the pollutants as it is happens in Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai.
2. There is agriculture regions of paddy around Delhi i.e. in Punjab and Haryana, where burning of waste during the winter takes place and this travels to the Delhi and in Delhi winters are also very cold, so the atmosphere gets proper medium to the creation of the smog.
3. Delhi is surrounded by the industrial towns like Gurgaon and Noida, where factories release a lot pollution, and this pollution directed towards the Delhi.
4. Per capita income of Delhi is higher as compared to Mumbai and Kolkata, which makes easier for the people to purchase motor vehicles and this leads to higher vehicle concentration in smaller areas and resulted into the greater vehicular emissions leads to increase in the pollution.
5. Delhi is landlocked territory as compared to Mumbai and Kolkata, so the level of pollution is more as the level of particulate matter and pollutants is not able to get discharged in to the surroundings.
6. Delhi also has higher area under roads as compared to Mumbai and Kolkata, which results in more road dust and air pollution.
7. Delhi’s NCR is the largest NCR in the world, so this creates more pressure on its environment.
Thus, the problem of air pollution in Delhi can be attributed to its geographical location as compared to Mumbai and Kolkata. Now Delhi and NCR is enveloped by toxic smog, which forcing the Indian Medical Association (IMA) to declare a public health emergency, advising citizens to stay indoors, and for schools to be shut.
The need of the hour is to devise some mechanisms which can help to bring down the level of pollution in the city such as using less pollution causing vehicles, developing a good mass transit system and controlling waste effluents from industries.